Пространственные и сетчатые конструкции, Вернадский, Шухов, Ладовский, Крутиков, Мельников, Савельев, Мухин, Шевнин, Shevnin, геномная архитектура

пятница, 7 декабря 2007 г.

Мельников Н.П

Николай Прокофьевич МЕЛЬНИКОВ
(1908 - 1982)

Н.П.Мельников родился 20 декабря 1908 г. в деревне Быки Добрушского района Гомельской области (Белоруссия). Умер в 1982 г., похоронен на Новодевичьем кладбище в Москве.

В 1928 - 1934 гг. - студент Киевского политехнического института.

С 1933 г. инженер, старший инженер, руководитель группы, главный инженер проекта, начальник отдела промышленных сооружений института "Гипростальмост".

С 1942 г. управляющий московским отделением, заместитель директора, главный инженер Государственной союзной проектной конторы "Стальконструкция".

В 1944 г. Н.П.Мельников становится директором треста "Проектстальконструкция" (в настоящее время АОЗТ "ЦНИИПСК им. Мельникова"), коллективом которого он бессменно руководил в течение 38 лет. Его именем назван наш институт.

В 1952 г. Н.П. Мельников защитил кандидатскую диссертацию, в 1962 г. - докторскую диссертацию. В 1976 г. избран членом-корреспондентом, а в 1979 г. - действительным членом Академии наук СССР.

За заслуги перед Родиной Н.П. Мельников награжден орденами Ленина, Октябрьской Революции, Трудового Красного знамени (дважды), "Знак Почета" и многими медалями. Ему присуждены Ленинская и четыре Государственных премии СССР.

Н.П. Мельников - автор более 130 крупных конструкторских работ в области цветной и черной металлургии, атомной промышленности, энергетики, машиностроения, нефтяной и химической промышленности, судостроения, транспорта, космической и околоземной связи, и др.

Им разработана и реализована фонарно-рамная система одноэтажного промышленного здания, в которой свето-аэрационный фонарь используется как несущий элемент каркаса.

Для большепролетных одноэтажных зданий Мельниковым разработано покрытие подкосно-консольного типа, реализованное в конструкции эллинга судостроительного завода с пролетами 48м и шагом колонн 24 м.

Под руководством Мельникова в институте создана методика расчета стальных конструкций доменных цехов. Совместно с Институтом им. Патона разработаны технология и режимы выполнения стыковых сварных швов толстых листов кожухов доменных конструкций. Все это позволило создать индустриальную конструкцию цельносварной доменной печи.

Значительна роль Мельникова в восстановлении разрушенных в годы Великой Отечественной войны зданий и сооружений. На основе анализа состояния обрушенных и поврежденных конструкций им были разработаны принципы и методы скоростного восстановления сооружений.

Мельников принимал участие в создании первого в стране атомного реактора, разработал и исследовал формы несущих конструкций атомных реакторов. Мельников руководил разработкой стальных конструкций атомных реакторов для Ленинградской, Курской, Чернобыльской, Смоленской, Игналинской и других атомных электростанций.

Среди других конструкторских работ следует отметить уникальные конструкции Серпуховского и Дубненского ускорителей, аэродинамические трубы ЦАГИ и ЦИАМ, антенные сооружения и радиотелескопы, кислородно-конверторные цеха, сосуды давления, резервуары, газгольдеры, пролетные строения мостов и др.

Руководимому им коллективу объязана своим рождением и развитием целая отрасль промышленности - сеть мощных специализированных заводов стальных и аллюминиевых конструкций.

Значительное место в трудах Мельникова занимают теоретические разработки. Главными из них является теория формообразования и теория сооружения. Им опубликовано более 170 научных работ, среди них 26 монографий. Под его редакцией издано более 800 печатных листов сборников научных трудов института и справочников по металлическим конструкциям и строительной механике.

Мельников отводил особое место повышению качественных характеристик металла. Под его руководством велись интенсивные работы по созданию новых марок сталей повышенной и высокой прочности как для обычных так и для экстремальных условий эксплуатации.

Многое сделано Мельниковым для изучения статической и динамической прочности, хрупких разрушений и малоцикловой усталости.

Мельников уделял много внимания развитию автоматизированных методов проектирования строительных металлоконструкций.

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Block panel structures with the prestressed membrane

Roujanski I.L.
ABSTRACT

During the last 15 years in Russia carrying metal structures of the coverings of the new type appeared to become widely spread: space block panel systems, in which prestressed membrane works as a part of the block’s chords and as a boarding surface simultaneously. In the Melnikov Central Research and Design Institute of Steel Structures complex experimental-theoretical investigations are made, certain amount of large objects is designed and carried out. Up to the present time simular coverings are carried out in the form of spans from 24 to 84 m. Project elaborations show its rationality for the spans up to 120 m, including the production erections with a suspended cranes.
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. DESIGN – THE MAIN PRINCIPLES

When designning elements of the prestressed steel structures of the given type one has to take into account not only the norm requirements, but also the peculiarities of constructing, production and erection, described below. The realisation of panel prestressing with a thinsheet plating leads to combining the carrying and boarding functions. The choice of the method and the level of prestressing is accounted for by the calculation and the production considerations. The design of such structures must contain, firstly, the scheme of works production, that are connected with the panel elaboration and their prestressing, secondly, information on the control of the level of prestressing, and also calculations needed.
2. CONSTRUCTING, PRODUCTION AND ERECTION
2.1. CONSTRUCTING

The assembling of the covering blocks is carried out from the space assembling elements. These elements consist from the separated panels, united by vertical links and are called "block panel". Its length and width correspond to length and width of the panel and are limited by the transport means overall dimensions. The block covering maximum height should be fixed in the limits of 1/10 - 1/20 of a bay. Two variants of constructive realisations of the covering blocks are possible. If the panel use in both chords of the block are accounted for by calculations or technological requirements (for instance, technical floor is needed), lattice of the longitudinal carrying trusses and cross linking trusses can be carried out element by element (fig.1,2). If the panel use for lower chords of the blocks isn’t accounted for, longitudinal carrying trusses and cross linking trusses are produced on the factory with dimensions, corresponding to transport means overall dimensions. At the same time panels are included into work as part of upper chords of the trusses.

Thus, elements of the structure of the covering block, which are produced on the factory, are as follows (see fig.1):
Fig.1

* prestressed panels of the upper and lower chords (1);
* elements of the longitudinal trusses lattice (installed element by element) or elements of the longitudihal trusses of the transport means overall dimensions (2);
* elements of the vertical cross links element by element or in the form of trusses (3);
* erection joint cover plates of the longitudinal elements of the panel framework (4);
* erection joint cover plates of the longitudinal and cross joints of the membrane panels, which are carried out in the form of narrow stripped cover plates (5).

Longitudinal carrying trusses lattice, installed element by element, should be constructed according to cross type from the separate angle bars. It is possible to install the lattice for each of erection blocks of triangular frameworks in the cases, when forces in the elements of longitudinal trusses lattice are not big and the use of the full cross lattice isn’t acounted for by the calculation. Longitudinal lattices of two neighbouring blocks are united through interlayer if the assembling is enlarging, and the longitgudinal trusses lattice receives the cross type in a working position. Fastening of the lattice elements can be carried out either directly to the longitidinal elements of the upper and lower block panels framework or acoording to usual model.
Fig.2

Panels are constructed in accordance to 2.2.1 (fig.2, view 2-2). Longitudinal elements of the framework "I" of the panels should be carried out from rolled angle bar, cross elements "2" of the framework - from bent channel bar, buttend elements - in the form of trusses "4" from angle bars. Panels thinsheet plating is carried out in accordance with 2.2.2. Plating thicknesses recommended are from 1,0 to 2,0 mm. The plating’s use with the thickness more than 2 mm can be accepted only if there are some special reasons. Allowed plating imperfections should be in diaposon of 20-25 mm on the site, boarded by longitudinal and cross elements of the panel’s framework.

When using factory producted longitudinal trusses, as well as the using full cross lattice for longitudinal trusses of the each of erection blocks, longitudinal elements of the panel’s framework should be turned by shelfes "in- -out" block (or the panel) (see fig.2). When using triangular lattittude with its following uniting to the cross lattice in the process of enlarging assembling, longitudinal elements of the panels framework must be turned by shelfes "inside" the block (or the panel).
2.2. FACTORY PRODUCTION OF PRESTRESSED PANELS
2.2.1. PANELS FRAMEWORK

The production of the prestressed panel of any type independently of the way of thinsheet plating tension, begins form producting the tough framework. This framework is carried out in the form of welded frame from rolled or bent profiles (see fig.2). The frame dimensions correspond to panel dimensions and are limited by the transport means overall dimensions. Panels framework consists from longitudinal "I", cross "2" and buttend "3" elements. Cross elements "2" are welded in between longitudinal elements "I" with a space of 1,0-2,0 m and act as baulks, perceiving the local loadings from roof-covering and snow.

Buttend elements serve for transmitting forces to longitudinal elements; these forces are created in the process of tension of the thinsheet plating. In the exploitation of the elements perceive unbalanced chain forces, occuring when the thinsheet plating works as the membrane due to local loadings. Cross elements "2" and buttend elements "3" are welded in between longitudinal elements "I" flush with the upper shelfes of the lattest to form the flat surface. After such a forming the plating is put along it. All the welded junctions, that are jut out of the surface, are smoothed out.
2.2.2 THIN SHEET PLATING (MEMBRANE)

Technological map of the plating "5", that corresponds to framework dimensions in the plane, is produced simultaneously with producing the framework. The process of production of the plating map depends on the kind of supply of thinsheet steel, that the metallurgical works sticks to. The supply may be realised in rolls or in sheets. If the thinsheet plating (membrane) is supplied in rolls, than the technological plating map is welded from two (see fig.2) or more strips by the longitudinal junctions or by pointed welding. In case the supply in the form of sheets is chosen and the framework length is considerably bigger than the length of the sheet supplied, the necessity in complementary cross joints apears. These joints are also prepared by means of welded ones. The dimensions of technological plating map in the plane are somewhat lesser the framework dimensions and are equal to corresponding distance between the framework framework elements plus the quantity of a lap, that is minimally needed for plating adjustment to them.
2.2.3 TENSION OF THE THINSHEET PLATING TO THE PANEL FRAMEWORK BY THE "BOWSTRING" METHOD

At the time being four main methods of the tension of the thinsheet plating to the panel framework are elaborated: a method of the "direct tension of the thinsheet plating to the panel framework"; a "bending" method; a "bowstring" method; a "removable inventary element" method. The most effective method is the "bowstring" method.
Fig.3

The scheme of operations sequence in the "bowstring" method is shown on the fig.6. Flat panel framework (fig.3.1) is bent elastically on a stand up to the calculated ratios "r"(fig. 3.2). Then the thinsheet plating is put up the framework on temporary linings which form horizontal surface on the level of the framework buttends; then the thinsheet plating is fastened to the framework buttend elements; after that linings are deleted (fig.3.3). Then the framework is liberated from fastenings and is straightened under the influence of the inner elastic forces, stretching the thinsheet plating as a bowstring (fig. 3.4); after that the thinsheet plating is fastened to the longitudinal and cross framework elements (fig. 3.5).

During the process of the tension it is easy to use the operation of constructive stretching (if necessary) of the thinsheet plating in order to correct its initial imperfections.

For that purpose thinsheet plating, horisontally put on the lining, is fastened to one of the buttend framework elements and is stretched from the other buttend by a constructive effort by means of a cramp or a light jack. After stretching free end of the plating if fastened to the second buttend panel’s framework element.

This small complementary operation provides fully the capacity of the panel produced.
2.3. THE ERECTION OF BLOCK STRUCTURES FROM THE PRESTRESSED PANELS

The panels, working as a part of space blocks chords, are delivered from a factory in the complex with longitudinal and cross vertical links elements, which, as stipulated in 2.1, may be either elaborated in the form of factory trusses, or element by element. Erection works for both cases of the structures arranging are simular and can be divided into four stages.

On the first stage space block panel of the project height and configuration with plane overall dimensions corresponding to panel’s overall dimensions (fig.2) is assembled from panels and elements of the longitudinal and cross vertical trusses. The block panels assembling is carried out on the stock in the case of realising vertical links in the kind of trusses, or in the special conductor (in the case of realising vertical links element by element).

On the second stage enlarging assembling of the erection block from the ready block panels is carried out on the stocks. The length of the erection block corresponds to the building’s bay usually, and its width is equal to the width of one or several panels. This width depends from the hoisting capacity of the erection mechanisms.

On the third stage lift and installation of the erection block to the project position is carried out directly by means of a crane, or, if a building acquires considerable height and length, - by the "moving" method.

The fourth stage of the structure erection is as follows: installing of cover plates to the longitudinal joints between assembled blocks.Besides, on this stage joints between vertical cross links of the seperate blocks are formed in case it is required to create distributing trusses of the covering’s cross links.
3. THE COVERING OF THE OLYMPIC SPORT COMPLEX ZSKA
3.1 CONSTRUCTIVE DESCRIPTION

The covering of the Olympic Sport Complex ZSKA in Moscow is the largest space covering, carried out now. The assembling of it is finished in 1977; it presents the building with the dimensions in the plane 84-300 m in the axises of columns or 104-306 m on the perimetre of the covering. Football and track- and-field athletic grounds with the stands on 10 thousand spectators are placed in the building as well as the set of sport halls, services and technological premices.

Frameworks of football and track-and-field athletic grounds have dimensions in the plane 126-104 m. Diametrical toughness of these frameworks is provided by the strut structure, formed by steel columns and structures of the tribunes. Along the main columns underrafter uncut beams are provided. The bay of the halls in the axises of columns is 84 m. Lightaeration zenithal lanterns are provided in the covering through every 24 m. (fig. 4). Carrying structures of the covering are made in the form of volume blocks (width - 2,5 m, length - 104 m) that are preliminary tensed. The height of the finial is 6 m.
Fig.4

The structure of the block consists of higher and lower panels, that are united by the linking elements from the single corners of the cross outline. Panels with dimensions 2,5-12 m consist from longitudinal elements in the form of corners and prelimenary tense membrane with the width of 2 mm. The membrane of the upper (pressed) panels are strained preliminary up to the calculated level of strain. The membrane of the lower (stretched) panels is strained preliminary by the constructive effort in order to create the plain surface.
3.2 FACTORY PRODUCTION OF THE PRESTRESSED PANELS AND THE COVERING’S ERECTION

Preliminary strained panels are elaborated on the factory production line, when the fabrication is automatised up to the 95 per cent. The thinsheet plating’s tension was carried out according to the "bowstring" method (see 2.2.3). The assembling of the covering is carried out by means of the nonstop blocks elaborating method (see 2.3).

Enlarging controle assembling of the block was elaborated in conductor in the laying position. Each two blocks with dimensions 2,5-104 m before lift were united in the assembling block with dimensions in the plane 5-104 m. The weight of assembling block was equal to the following: from 70 t (for ordinary blocks) to 100 t (for underlattern blocks of the covering). The assembling block was lifted to the mark of underrafter beams along the inclined assembling overpass. It was moved to the design position by means of two winches with the carrying capacity 8 t each.

The full assembling and installation of the block to the design position was carried out in 5 days.

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System of standards for steel construction in russia

E. Airumyan, V. Belyaev, S. Ivanov, O. Novogrudsk
ABSTRACT

This report contains specific features of the development and use of the. system of standards for the design and erection of steel structures for generic and specific facility types in Russia. The text contains examples of violations of the Russian standards using the imported steel structures and technologies in Russia. The report contains proposals to improve the system of technical standards in steel construction in Russia using foreign standards and structures.
1. INTRODUCTION

The Melnikov Central Research and Design Institute (TSNIIPSK) is the leading Russian agency in the field of research, design and development of steel structures for buildings and facilities of various types, including the high- rise buildings, bridges and reservoirs with the capacity up to 100 thousand m3. The Melnikov Institute takes part in the development of standard and technical documents for the design, erection, fabrication and testing of steel structures in Russia (SNiPs, reference books and recommendations, textbooks, technical statements, etc.) The Melnikov Institute engineers are involved in expert review of the imported steel structure elements and their fixing elements, steel and alloy materials, as well as in expert review of facility designs in general for appropriate certification and attestation (construction permits) in the Russian Federation. In this field, the Melnikov Institute worked with firms from Bulgaria, Hungary, Check Republic, Germany, Finland, USA. During the recent five years the Melnikov Institute conducted expert reviews of steel structures supplied by Finnish companies Imatrin Vojma, Hakkilan Konepaja, Rannila and others.
2. CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS FOR GENERIC PURPOSE STEEL STRUCTURES

Expert review activities include the verification of the imported steel structures to correspond the existing Russian standards and technical statements. Several foreign companies involved in supplies of steel profile, structures and fixing elements to Russia, do not present the necessary information on the strength, durability and purpose of use. This makes the expert review more complicated, and the time to issue the appropriate certificate is prolonged, because in this case, these structuresVnaterials are to be tested in accordance with standard methods, including the European Standard 3 and 4.In several cases, when some imported structures were used in Russia without preliminary expert review and certification led to violation of safety requirements and even emergency situations. We have a good example. In 1988 the former "Agroprom" (under the supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture) purchased from Knudsen (USA)a number of mobile units to fabricate structures for frameless arch buildings based on chin-walled cold-formed sections, using a unique technology in the world. The company guaranteed the reliability of these facilities with the spans up to 24 m and uniformly distributed load up to 1.5 kN/m2 (kN per square meter). It is known, that according to the ISO standard and Russian standards, asymmetrical snow load must be calculated for arch facilities. However, in this particular case this work was not performed, and several arch facilities were built in Russian regions with different climate conditions. AS a result, two buildings with 18 and 21 meter spans correspondingly, were crushed with irregular snow load. Average intensity of this snow load was two times less than the previously reported one by the importer company.

Ten years later same situation occurred. A Russian firm purchased a new generation profiled bending machine in the United States, in order to fabricate structures of analogous arch buildings with larger spans, but using more strong sections. And in this case recommendations of the companies did not correspond the RF requirements and resulted in emergency situation: in 1999 one of the spans of the market arch roof in Moscow crashed under the snow load. According to the results of the crash analysis, the stresses in arch elements of the broken span (36 meters) 1.6times exceeded the allowable stresses, calculated under standard snow load in accordance with the SNiP standard.

After a number of emergency situations, these progressive and economically reliable structures could be discredited in Russia. In this connection, taking into account test and theoretical research and serious of tests, the Melnikov Institute has developed appropriate specifications and recommendations for fabrication, analysis, calculation and rational use of the arch facilities of his type. Thus, these type of structures were more widely used in Russia.

The Melnikov Institute is currently involved in the most important issues of light steel structures development for housing program to reduce heat supply energy resources.

Under this program the Melnikov Institute ins developing new effective structures of the heated roofs and wall facings using zinc coated cold-formed sections (up to 1 mm thickness). It is important to mention that SNiPs and other Russian standards developed for steel structures are connected with steel elements with the thickness not lass than 2 mm. In this connection the Melnikov Institute is currently developing new specifications and recommendations for load-bearing and enclosure steel structures (up to 2 mm thickness) taking into account the test results and international standards. Resulting from these developments several patents were obtained, including know-how in the field of fabrication and installation of light chin-walled cold-formed steel sections (thickness from 0.6 to 1.0 mm).

For example, the Melnikov Institute has developed a new method of installation of steel pitch roofs without cross-connections in large span facilities. The use of this roof type in two-pitch roof buildings with the span 60 m and 7° slope turned to be more effective in comparison with profiled roof designed by Raninila company with cross-connections, which turned to be not so reliable in Moscow region.

It is important to mention, that during the design of the new roof we used the experience of foreign companies (including Finnish firms) to provide natural ventilation between the insulation and roof itself.

Thus, the design and fabrication of steel structures in Russia is based not only on existing standards, but VNII standard specifications, taking into account normal and specific conditions to use these structures (for example, seismic regions and so-called aggressive environments, etc.).

The development of these specifications should be developed by the leading scientific research and design institutes and supervised by the RF Ministry of Construction, in order to improve the system of standards in steel construction activities.
3. STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF UNIQUE STEEL STRUCTURE FACILITIES

New conditions on the Russian market opened wide opportunities of involving foreign companies in large oil and gas projects in Russia. For instance , the sea oil and gas projects in Sakhalin shelf, Pechora and Barentsev Sea shelf, new system projects for sea and land oil transportation, e.g. Kaspian Pipeline Consortium oil pipeline project, sea oil transportation project n Timan-Pechora region.

Many technical solutions and facility specifications used in these projects are truly unprecedented for Russia.

One of the most important issues related to the construction of such facilities are standard and technical procedures, to provide reliability and cost- efficiency of any unique facility.

At first sight it seems, that the easiest way to solve this issue is to use the world experience in Russia, following the system of standards and procedures developed by other countries. This tendency is clearly seen in the activities of the most part of foreign companies in Russia. However, this approach is not progressive for Russia. Norms and standards of each country are based on its own experience and industrial capacities. Foreign standards directly transferred to Russia jeopardize the wide use of its scientific, design, engineering and industrial potential in design and construction of unique buildings. AS a result, new experience and the development of Russian industrial capacities are being retained.

Another approach is necessary. This approach should be based on the existing Russian procedure to develop and approve specific specifications for unique building design and construction. These specifications are developed by the leading research and design agencies upon the request of the proprietor of the building/ these specifications are to be agreed upon with the federal supervisory agencies and the Ministry of Construction, and then approved by the proprietor of the building. After the specifications document is approved, it becomes an official standard document for design and construction of this particular building.

Specifications are developed on the basis of Russian construction standards (SNiPs) taking into account the advanced foreign standards and procedures, as well as the world experience in design and construction of the above facilities and use of Russian materials and industrial capacities. We have an example of such specifications. The Melnikov Institute developed specifications (TY KTK- 5802) for design and construction of reservoirs (oil crude swept volume is 100 000 m3) in 1999, for oil pipeline system of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium. These reservoirs (vessels) are unique for our country. The former USSR (including the Russian Federation) reservoirs (vessels) capacity did not exceed 50000 m3.

The mentioned specifications include:

* American standard procedures API 650, which is considered to be a leader in reservoir construction in comparison with standards of other countries.
* technical solutions for construction of large reservoirs for oil storage, used by the Western Europe and American reservoir construction approaches.
* use of Russian rolled steel together with the imported rolled steel for reservoir 9vessel) construction;
* use Russian backing finish to protect the reservoir construction from corrosion,
* industrial capacities of the Russian steel structure plants and design and construction agencies.

After this approach was put into practice, specifications provided the use of Russian rolled steed for vessel bottoms, floating roofs and the upper side of reservoir walls, construction of elements of these structures at the Russian factories and implementation of considerable scope of work to install these vessels by Russian construction agencies. It was important to produce only the lower part of the vessel walls at the foreign plants, where high-strength and thick rolled steel is required. In order to solve the task to provide the system of standards for construction of sea facility for oil/gas extraction and transportation at the Russian shelf, the Ministry of Construction established a scientific and technical commission "Shelf facilities for oil and gas extraction" (resolution No. 125 dated 13 May 1999). This commission is located at the Melnikov Institute. The commission has developed the Program to create federal standard documentation for design and construction of sea facilities for gas/oil extraction and transportation. The Ministry of Construction has approved this program. In accordance with the Program, the Commission is currently planning to commence the work to develop specifications for further design and construction of specific oil/gas extraction platforms, underwater pipelines and sea terminals for oil/gas transportationMoading, including the standard documentation package related to design, construction, operation, renovation and demolition of the sea oil/gas facilities and underwater pipelines.
4. CLOSING

The Melnikov Central Research and Design Institute (TSNIIPSK) is ready to contact and cooperate with foreign companies and organizations to conduct expert review or jointly develop appropriate specifications necessary for certification and obtaining necessary permits/patents for imported steel structures and materials in Russia in order to increase their competitiveness at the Russian market.

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Конструкции для космоса

Стартовый комплекс космической системы "Энергия-Буран" Стартовый комплекс космической системы "Энергия-Буран"
Уникальный стартовый комплекс, позволяющий осуществлять не только запуски космической системы "Энергия-Буран", но и произволить необходимые наземные испытания. Важнейшими особенностями условий работы конструкций стартового комплекса явились:

* влияние температурных воздействий на несущие элементы конструкции,
* динамические воздействия от внештатных ситуаций при запуске.

Прецизионный радиотелескоп диаметром 64 м Прецизионный радиотелескоп диаметром 64 м
Полноповоротный прецизионный радиотелескоп РТ-64 с рефлектором диаметром 64 м для радиоастрономии и космической связи (Медвежьи озера, Московская область). Масса вращаемых конструкций и механизмов - 4000 т. Точность сохранения формы зеркала при вращении и действии ветра до 15 м/сек - 0,6 мм.

Прецизионный радиотелескоп диаметром 32 м Прецизионный радиотелескоп диаметром 32 м
Прецизионный полноповоротный радиотелескоп второго поколения РТФ-32 диаметром 32 м для радиоастрономии и дальней космической связи (Светлое, Ленинградской обл.). Масса вращаемых конструкций и механизмов - 660 т. Точность сохранения формы зеркала при вращении и действии ветра до 15 м/сек - 0,1 мм.

Серийная полноповоротная зеркальная антена диаметром 18 м Серийная полноповоротная зеркальная антена диаметром 18 м
Серийная полноповоротная зеркальная антена диаметром 18 м второго поколения для спутниковой связи. Масса вращаемых конструкций и механизмов - 103 т.Точность сохранения формы зеркала при вращении и действии ветра до 15 м/сек - 0,5 мм.

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